ferroconcrete n : concrete with metal and/or mesh added to provide extra support against stresses [syn: reinforced concrete]
Reinforced concrete is concrete in which reinforcement bars ("rebars") or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be brittle. In industrialised countries, nearly all concrete used in construction is reinforced concrete.
HistoryThe use of reinforced concrete is a relatively recent invention, usually attributed to Joseph-Louis Lambot in 1848. Joseph Monier, a French gardener, patented a design for reinforced garden tubs in 1867, and later patented reinforced concrete beams and posts for railway and road guardrails. The first application of reinforced concrete as a material for the construction of buildings took place in 1864 when William Boutland Wilkinson built a house in Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, UK. The patent for this building material was obtained as early as 1854.
Early reinforced concrete remained a patented rather than generic product, with different firms developing competing systems. The German company Wayss & Freitag was formed in 1875, with A.G. Wayss publishing a book on reinforced concrete in 1887. Their major competitor in Europe was the firm of Francois Hennebique, set up in 1892. Hennebique completed over 7,000 structures in reinforced concrete within his firm's first ten years.
A reinforced concrete system was patented in the United States by Thaddeus Hyatt in 1878. The first reinforced concrete building constructed in the United States was the Pacific Coast Borax Company's refinery in Alameda, California, built in 1893.
The major developments of reinforced concrete have taken place since the year 1900; and from the late 20th century, engineers have developed sufficient confidence in a new method of reinforcing concrete, called prestressed concrete, to make routine use of it.
Use in construction
Concrete is reinforced to give it extra tensile strength; without reinforcement, many concrete buildings would not have been possible.
Reinforced concrete can encompass many types of structures and components, including slabs, walls, beams, columns, foundations, frames and more.
Much of the focus on reinforcing concrete is placed on floor systems. Designing and implementing the most efficient floor system is key to creating optimal building structures. Small changes in the design of a floor system can have significant impact on material costs, construction schedule, ultimate strength, operating costs, occupancy levels and end use of a building.
Behaviour of reinforced concrete
MaterialsConcrete is a mixture of cement (usually Portland cement) and stone aggregate. When mixed with a small amount of water, the cement hydrates to form a microscopic opaque crystal lattice structure encapsulating and locking the aggregate into its rigid structure. Typical concrete mixes have high resistance to compressive stresses (about 4,000 psi (27.5 MPa)); however, any appreciable tension (e.g. due to bending) will break the microscopic rigid lattice resulting in cracking and separation of the concrete. For this reason, typical non-reinforced concrete must be well supported to prevent the development of tension.
If a material with high strength in tension, such as steel, is placed in concrete, then the composite material, reinforced concrete, resists compression but also bending, and other direct tensile actions. A reinforced concrete section where the concrete resists the compression and steel resists the tension can be made into almost any shape and size for the construction industry.
Depending on the type of concrete mix and steel employed, reinforced concrete structures can support 300 to 500 times their combined weight and behave, according to general mechanics, as a single structural entity. Although concrete and steel would appear to have a weight disadvantage, this support ratio is competitive with student balsa-wood bridges.
Key characteristicsThree physical characteristics give reinforced concrete its special properties. First, the coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is similar to that of steel, eliminating internal stresses due to differences in thermal expansion or contraction. Second, when the cement paste within the concrete hardens this conforms to the surface details of the steel, permitting any stress to be transmitted efficiently between the different materials. Usually steel bars are roughened or corrugated to further improve the bond or cohesion between the concrete and steel. Third, the alkaline chemical environment provided by calcium carbonate (lime) causes a passivating film to form on the surface of the steel, making it much more resistant to corrosion than it would be in neutral or acidic conditions.
The reinforcing bars are generally sufficiently well-bonded to the concrete to resist most tension forces. However, where this is not the case, anchorage of the steel can be increased by bending the steel, for example into a 90 degree bend or 180 degree hook.
In some structural members where a small cross-section is desired, steel may be used to carry some of the compressive load as well as tensile load. This occurs, for example, in columns. In general, beams and slabs have reinforcing steel on all faces, whether or not they are in tension, as this helps to tie the concrete together and prevents cracking from other causes, such as the early thermal shrinkage which occurs as the concrete cures. In the case of continuous beams where the tensile stress alternates between top and bottom of the member, multiple runs (layers) of steel may be used or the steel may be bent into a zig-zag shape within the beam.
The relative cross-sectional area of steel required for typical reinforced concrete is usually quite small and varies from 1% for most beams and slabs to 6% for some columns. Reinforcing bars are normally round in cross-section and vary in diameter (see rebar for more information). In the United States, rebar comes in two grades of carbon content, Grade 60 and Grade 40, which typically sell for the same price. Grade 60 has a higher carbon content and, therefore, a higher tensile strength, but its stiffness can make it difficult to bend and cut. Galvanised, epoxy-coated, and stainless steel rebar are also available for use in corrosive environments.
Reinforced concrete structures sometimes have provisions such as ventilated hollow cores to control their moisture & humidity.
Anti-corrosion measuresIn wet and cold climates, reinforced concrete for roads, bridges, parking structures and other structures that may be exposed to deicing salt may benefit from use of epoxy-coated, hot dip galvanised or stainless steel rebar, although good design and a well-chosen cement mix may provide sufficient protection for many applications. Epoxy coated rebar can easily be identified by the light green colour of its epoxy coating. Hot dip galvanized rebar may be bright or dull grey depending on length of exposure, and stainless rebar exhibits a typical white metallic sheen that is readily distinguishable from carbon steel reinforcing bar. Reference ASTM standard specifications A767 Standard Specification for Hot Dip Galvanised Reinforcing Bars, A775 Standard Specification for Epoxy Coated Steel Reinforcing Bars and A955 Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Stainless Bars for Concrete Reinforcment
Penetrating sealants typically must be applied some time after curing. Sealants include paint, plastic foams, films and aluminum foil, felts or fabric mats sealed with tar, and layers of bentonite clay, sometimes used to seal roadbeds.
Common failure modes of steel reinforced concrete
Reinforced concrete can fail due to inadequate strength, leading to mechanical failure, or due to a reduction in its durability. Corrosion and freeze/thaw cycles may damage poorly designed or constructed reinforced concrete. When rebar corrodes, the oxidation products (rust) expand and tends to flake, cracking the concrete and unbonding the rebar from the concrete. Typical mechanisms leading to durability problems are discussed below.
Mechanical failureReinforced concrete can be considered to fail when significant cracks occur. Cracking of the concrete section can not be prevented however the size of the cracks can be limited and controlled by reinforcemnet. Cracking defects can allow moisture to penetrate and corrode the reinforcement. This is a serviceability failure in limit state design. Cracking is normally the result of an inadequate quantity of rebar, or rebar spaced at too great a distance. The concrete then cracks either under excess loading, or due to internal effects such as early thermal shrinkage when it cures.
Ultimate failure leading to collapse can be caused by crushing of the concrete matrix, when stresses exceed its strength; by yielding of the rebar; or by bond failure between the concrete and the rebar.
Carbonatation / CarbonationThe water in the pores of the cement is normally alkaline. This alkaline environment is one in which the steel is passive and does not corrode. According to the pourbaix diagram for iron, the metal is passive when pH is above 9.5. The carbon dioxide from the air reacts with the alkali in the cement and makes the pore water more acidic, thus lowering the pH. Carbon dioxide will start to carbonate the cement in the concrete from the moment the object is made. This carbonatation process (in Britain, called carbonation) will start at the surface, then slowly move deeper and deeper into the concrete. If the object is cracked, the carbon dioxide of the air will be better able to penetrate into the concrete. When designing a concrete structure, it is normal to state the concrete cover for the rebar (the depth within the object that the rebar will be). The minimum concrete cover is normally regulated by design or building codes. If the reinforcement is too close to the surface, early failure due to corrosion may occur.
One method of testing a structure for carbonatation is to drill a fresh hole in the surface and then treat the surface with phenolphthalein. This will turn pink when in contact with alkaline cement, making it possible to see the depth of carbonatation. An existing hole is no good because the exposed surface will already be carbonated.
ChloridesChlorides, including sodium chloride, promote the corrosion of steel rebar. For this reason, in mixing concrete only water, cement and aggregates with a low chloride content may be used, and the use of salt for deicing concrete pavements is avoided where possible.
Alkali silica reactionFor Full Article, See: Alkali Silica Reaction
This is found when the cement is too alkaline, due to a reaction of the silica in the aggregates with the alkali. The silica (SiO2) reacts with the alkali to form a silicate in the Alkali silica reaction (ASR), this causes localised swelling which causes cracking. The conditions for alkali silica reaction are: (1) aggregate containing an alkali reactive constituent, (2) sufficiently high alkalinity, and (3) sufficient moisture, above 75%RH within the concrete. This phenomenon has been popularly referred to as "concrete cancer".
Conversion of high alumina cementResistant to weak acids and especially sulfates, this cement cures quickly and reaches very high durability and strength. It was greatly used after World War II for making precast concrete objects. However, it can lose strength with heat or time (conversion), especially when not properly cured. With the collapse of three roofs made of prestressed concrete beams using high alumina cement, this cement was banned in the UK in 1976. Subsequent inquiries into the matter showed that the beams were improperly manufactured, but the ban remained.
SulfatesSulfates in soil or groundwater can react with Portland cement causing expansive products, e.g ettringite or thaumasite, which can lead to early failure.
Fiber-reinforced concreteFiber-reinforcement is mainly used in shotcrete, but can also be used in normal concrete. Fiber-reinforced normal concrete are mostly used for on-ground floors and pavements, but can be considered for a wide range of construction parts (beams, pilars, foundations etc) either alone or with hand-tied rebars.
Concrete reinforced with fibers (which are usually steel, glass or "plastic" fibers) is less expensive than hand-tied rebar, while still increasing the tensile strength many times. Shape, dimension and length of fiber is important. A thin and short fiber, for example short hair-shaped glass fiber, will only be effective the first hours after pouring the concrete (reduces cracking while the concrete is stiffening) but will not increase the concrete tensile strength. A normal size fibre for European shotcrete (1 mm diameter, 45 mm length—steel or "plastic") will increase the concrete tensile strength.
Steel is the strongest commonly-available fiber, and come in different lengths (30 to 80 mm in Europe) and shapes (end-hooks). Steel fibres can only be used on surfaces that can tolerate or avoid corrosion and rust stains. In some cases, a steel-fiber surface is faced with other materials.
Glass fiber is inexpensive and corrosion-proof, but not as ductile as steel. Recently, spun basalt fiber, long available in Eastern Europe, has become available in the U.S. and Western Europe. Basalt fibre is stronger and less expensive than glass, but historically, has not resisted the alkaline environment of portland cement well enough to be used as direct reinforcement. New materials use plastic binders to isolate the basalt fiber from the cement.
The premium fibers are graphite reinforced plastic fibers, which are nearly as strong as steel, lighter-weight and corrosion-proof. Some experimeters have had promising early results with carbon nanotubes, but the material is still far too expensive for any building.
Non-steel reinforcementSome construction cannot tolerate the use of steel. For example, MRI machines have huge magnets, and require nonmagnetic buildings. Another example are toll-booths that read radio tags, and need reinforced concrete that is transparent to radio.
In some instances, the lifetime of the concrete structure is more important than its strength. Since corrosion is the main cause of failure of reinforced concrete, a corrosion-proof reinforcement can extend a structure's life substantially.
For these purposes some structures have been constructed using fiber-reinforced plastic rebar, grids or fibers. The "plastic" reinforcement can be as strong as steel. Because it resists corrosion, it does not need a protective concrete cover of 30 to 50 mm or more as steel reinforcement does. This means that FRP-reinforced structures can be lighter, have longer lifetime and for some applications be price-competitive to steel-reinforced concrete.
The main barrier to use of FRP reinforcement is the fact that it is neither ductile nor fire resistant. Structures employing FRP rebars may therefore exhibit a less ductile structural response, and decreased fire resistance.
However, the addition of short monofilament polypropylene fibres to the concrete during mixing may have the beneficial effect of reducing spalling during a fire. In a severe fire, such as the Channel Tunnel fire, conventionally reinforced concrete can suffer severe spalling leading to failure. This is in part due to the pore water remaining within the concrete boiling explosively; the steam pressure then causes the spalling. The action of fibres within the concrete is due to their ability to melt, forming pathways out through the concrete, allowing the steam pressure to dissipate.
ferroconcrete in Arabic: خرسانة مسلحة
ferroconcrete in Bulgarian: Стоманобетон
ferroconcrete in Czech: Železobeton
ferroconcrete in German: Stahlbeton
ferroconcrete in Spanish: Hormigón armado
ferroconcrete in Esperanto: Ŝtalbetono
ferroconcrete in French: Béton armé
ferroconcrete in Galician: Formigón armado
ferroconcrete in Italian: Cemento armato
ferroconcrete in Hebrew: בטון מזוין
ferroconcrete in Dutch: Gewapend beton
ferroconcrete in Japanese: 鉄筋コンクリート
ferroconcrete in Polish: Żelbet
ferroconcrete in Portuguese: Concreto armado
ferroconcrete in Russian: Железобетон
ferroconcrete in Simple English: Reinforced concrete
ferroconcrete in Slovak: Železobetón
ferroconcrete in Serbian: Армирани бетон
ferroconcrete in Thai: คอนกรีตเสริมแรง
ferroconcrete in Vietnamese: Bê tông cốt thép
ferroconcrete in Turkish: Betonarme
ferroconcrete in Ukrainian: Залізобетон
ferroconcrete in Chinese: 钢筋混凝土